工业车辆技术国际
工业车辆技术国际

EV动力总成测试:收获效率优势的关键

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为了获得电气和混合动力汽车的效率益处和绿色型材,在设计和制造期间进行传动系和组件测试至关重要,专门适应混合动力和电动车辆的特殊性。Sakor Technologies Inc.总裁Randal Beattie考虑了选项。

Hybrid and electric drivetrains have several features that make testing them very different from the standard testing conducted on internal combustion (IC) only systems. Hybrid and electric systems use regenerative braking (where braking actually generates power that is returned to and stored in the vehicle’s battery for later use). This typically requires addition of fairly complex AC inverter technology, and often more complex transmissions.

此外,这些车辆通常具有多个模块控制单元(MCU),基本上是小型车载计算机,控制这些主要子系统作为发动机,传输和充电系统等的功能。为了正确测试这些组件,测试系统需要能够通过高速车载网络与这些单元中的一个或多个通信。这种变化的技术和增加的复杂性需要测试系统非常不同,更复杂,而不是IC-only系统中使用的系统。

该技术在那里,确保对混合动力和电动汽车承诺的能效效益的正确测试和实现。更重要的是,测试技术本身就是节能,减少运营和维护成本,并为车辆的整体环境绩效做出贡献。

混合或电动传动系统测试在车辆开发期间在几个阶段进行,每个阶段都有重要作用:

Engineering testing – design engineers need precise measurements

准确的测量是关键的,因此设计工程师可以从其设计中提取每一点效率。否则他们将失去使用混合动力/电动技术的大部分优势。大多数车用逆变器技术使用3相交流电机,因此需要精细的功率分析仪来正确测量具有大量谐波含量的3相交流电源。这些测试系统往往是相当复杂的并且通常是最复杂的,具有许多要进行测试和协调的元素。

过程和线路终端测试 - 制造商验证性能和安全性

通常执行制造线路终端测试以验证制造过程中没有引入缺陷,并且这些组件将以规格执行。典型测试包括操作验证,快速性能测试,以及严格的测试,以验证高压电气系统是否正确隔离,因此在车辆中使用安全。

还可以进行过程中的测试以沿着生产线测试部分组件。这提高了制造效率,并显着减少了有故障的部件将进入成品的机会。

Quality control testing – motor users look for defects in incoming product

Quality control (QC) testing is usually done on a percentage of the components to verify that that they perform over the specified range, and are relatively free of defects. For example, a fork lift company may conduct QC testing on a shipment of imported electric motors that are scheduled to be placed inside their forklifts. They would use QC testing to verify that the shipment coming from their supplier performs as specified and will not experience high failure rates in the field. This type of test system is typically less complex, because it does not have to measure as many items, nor to the degree of accuracy, as those tested in engineering systems.

再生制动燃料经济性改善的基础

混合或电动汽车使用4象象限的电机/逆变器技术来帮助发动机(混合)或作为主要移动器(电动车辆)。四个象限意味着电动机可以控制任一方向的速度或扭矩 - 电机可以加速,运行和向前或向后减速。

在减速期间,系统使用再生制动,因此电动机用于减慢车辆,并且在该过程中成为发电机,部分地将车辆中运动能量部分重新返回到电池中。在混合系统中,当停止,减慢或空转时,发动机通常关闭而不是燃烧燃料。同时,电动机再次成为发电机,部分地收回能量并将其存储在电池中。当需要时,发动机接头以保持车辆移动,或加速。在此期间,电动机有助于使用一些螺栓电能来加速车辆以减少发动机上的负荷,从而降低燃料消耗。

使用这种重新获得的动力是我们可以在加油和/或充电之间行驶更长时间的原因,从而提高我们正在寻求的燃油经济性。设计和制造车辆时使用的测试程序必须确保动力总成高效运行并充分利用这种再生动力。

混合动力和电动汽车的测试系统

测试混合动力车和电动汽车是世界之外的传统内燃机测试,通常测量速度,扭矩和几个温度,压力和流动。在测试内燃机时通常不需要对速度和扭矩进行非常精确的控制,因此从未设计用于标准内燃机测试(例如,水制动和涡流)的测功机来处理混合或电动动力装置所需的精度类型,也不能测试再生(电动)的操作模式。

现代混合动力/ eV测试系统必须提供传统系统的所有功能,具有测试大功率再生电源驱动器,高压电池和充电系统的能力,以及与任意数量的智能控制模块(MCU)进行通信。

电气系统测试

For many larger hybrid/electric drivetrains, there is a strong trend toward using higher voltage, higher efficiency drive systems. Going from the traditional 12/24-volt DC electric system to one using 240 volts AC will typically require one-eighth or less of the current to deliver the same power. Not only is this more efficient, but it also requires much smaller/lighter wiring and smaller components to transfer the energy, leading to smaller, lighter, more energy efficient vehicles. Many current designs operate at 800 volts or more, making the vehicles even more efficient.

To conduct this type of testing, it is essential to use a 4-quadrant motoring dynamometer, which can simulate/test all modes of operation in a hybrid or electric vehicle. The ability to drive or load in either direction is exactly what is needed to test a system that itself operates in this manner. A standard dynamometer is just not capable of testing the system during braking, when it is in regenerative mode.

创建高效率,AC供电系统通常涉及使用三相,逆变器的技术,精确地控制系统中的电动机。这些系统往往是非常有效的,而且还产生了功率输出中的大量谐波失真。因此,除了电动测力计外,现代混合动力/ EV测试系统通常包括相当复杂的三相功率分析仪。本机必须专门设计以准确地测量具有大量谐波失真的高功率电值。

To meet the need for a system that can fully test hybrid and electric vehicle drive systems, SAKOR developed HybriDyne™, a comprehensive test system for determining the performance, efficiency, and durability of all aspects of hybrid drivetrain systems, including electrical assist (parallel hybrid), diesel electric (serial hybrid), and fully-electric vehicle systems.

The HybriDyne integrates components of SAKOR’s DynoLAB powertrain and electric motor data acquisition and control systems. Coupled with one or more of its AccuDyne™ AC Motoring Dynamometers, and one or more precision power analyzers, the modular HybriDyne can test individual mechanical and/or electrical components, integrated sub-assemblies and complete drivetrains with a single system.

高压电池仿真和测试

现代混合动力车或电动车辆的临界元件是高压电池和充电系统。为了准确地测试高压混合或电动驱动器,您需要能够提供精确的可重复的高压DC电源。由于电池性能随时间变化,根据其充电状态,环境条件和年龄,它们通常不接受用于为混合动力/ EV测试系统的DC分量供电。为了实现可重复的结果,您需要一个可靠的直流电源。标准的离心电源不起作用,因为它不能吸收来自再生系统的电力。实际上,与再生系统一起使用的标准电源可能会损坏或破坏。

Sakor通过开发实体电池模拟器/测试系统专门用于测试高压混合动力车辆电池并模拟电动传动系统环境中的这些电池来解决此问题。

At the heart of the system lies a high-efficiency, line-regenerative DC power source. During regenerative modes, absorbed power is regenerated back to the AC mains instead of being dissipated as waste heat, which is common practice among previous generation testing systems. This innovative method provides much greater power efficiency and measurably reduces overall operating costs.

与Dynolab相结合,固态电池模拟器/测试仪准确地模拟了高压电池在真实态度中的响应。但是,由于它不受可变充电状态的影响,因此它提供了可重复的结果,测试后测试。当作为电池测试仪操作时,同一单元,将电池受到相同的充电/放电型材,因为它将在实际路线上的实际车辆中遇到。

One of the advantages of using the AC dynamometer with a regenerative DC power source is that when the two are coupled together, the power absorbed by one unit can be re-circulated back to the other unit within the test system. This greatly reduces the power drawn from the AC mains (by as much as 85% to 90%), and therefore significantly reduces total cost of operation. This is an extremely energy efficient configuration, that can easily pay for itself, often many times over, during the life of the test system. Very low maintenance requirements also contribute significantly to lowering operating costs.

与控制模块通信

与单个控制模块(MCU)进行通信是必须内置于混合动力或电动车辆的测试系统的另一个功能。过去,发动机主要使用油门和点火控制。现在,发动机具有发动机控制单元(ECU),车辆可能具有控制电驱动的单独的MCU,并且可以具有用于控制变速器和/或充电系统的单独单元。这些单位通常通过高速车辆网络在自己之间传送命令和/或数据,例如CAN,LIN,FlexRay等。

为了正确测试这种复杂的动力传动系统配置,测试系统必须能够同时和有效地与这些控制单元通信。Dynolab系统旨在将所有这些单独的单元集成到单个协调的测试平台中。

对汽车,重型设备,军事和航空航天工业有很大的兴奋,超越了混合动力和电气车的环境绩效。为实现这一承诺,必须采用传动系统的测试计划,以满足这种新的和新兴技术的需求。

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扫罗华兹华斯是诊断和副主编的品牌- which includes digital and print editions of a quarterly magazine and Off-Highway Annual, as well as ivtinternational.com. He is a keen cyclist and lives in north London.

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